Introduction (may be written last)

  • Capture your listeners’ attention: Begin with a question, a funny story, a startling comment, or anything that will make them think.
  • State your purpose; for example:

    ‘I’m going to talk about...’

    ‘This morning I want to explain…’
  • Present an outline of your talk; for example:

    ‘I will concentrate on the following points: First of all…Then…

    This will lead to… And finally…’

The Body

  • Present your main points one by one in logical order.
  • Pause at the end of each point (give people time to take notes, or time to think about what you are saying).
  • Make it absolutely clear when you move to another point. For example:

    ‘The next point is that ...’

    ‘OK, now I am going to talk about ...’

    ‘Right. Now I'd like to explain ... ’

    ‘Of course, we must not forget that ...’

    ‘However, it's important to realize that...’
  • Use clear examples to illustrate your points.
  • Use visual aids to make your presentation more interesting.

The Conclusion

  • It is very important to leave your audience with a clear summary of everything you have covered.
  • It is also important not to let the talk just fizzle out. Make it obvious that you have reached the end of the presentation.
  • Summarizs the main points again, using phrases like:

    ‘To sum up...’

    ‘So, in conclusion...’

    ‘OK, to recap the main points…’
  • Restate the purpose of your talk, and say that you have achieved your aim:

    ‘I think you can now see that...’

    ‘My intention was ..., and it should now be clear that ...’
Thank the audience, and invite questions:

‘Thank you. Are there any questions?’


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